Introduction. Web. Pericles, Prince of Tyre, tries his hand at the riddle. on 2-49 accounts, Save 30% That if anyone should ask, they should look at their final moments when they gave their lives to their country and that should leave no doubt in the mind of the doubtful. Pericles believed that democracy, because it is rule by citizens, required citizens to be informed and to have a direct interest in affairs of state. Gill, N.S. At such a time of high emotions and patriotism Pericles has not one theme but several. Thucydides fervently supported Periclesbut was less enthusiastic about the institution of democracy. B. Pericles fears that the dead have been sacrificed in vain. Renew your subscription to regain access to all of our exclusive, ad-free study tools. Want 100 or more? Pericles says that Athenians benefit from having to take care of both their public duties as citizens and their private affairs in business. To help make his point he stated that the soldiers whom he was speaking of gave their lives to a cause to protect the city of Athens, and its freedom. He further talked about how the citizens of Athens worked for the greater good not because they were forced to as slaves or poor people like in other cities, but because they wanted to out of their own desire and will. The Funeral Oration is significant because it differs from the usual form of Athenian funeral speeches. The bibliography on this topic is enormous. Literary Context: How Pericles Compares with Other Shakespeare Plays, William Shakespeare Biography & Background on Pericles. to start your free trial of SparkNotes Plus. 13. Dont have an account? The speech, "Funeral Oration", was a eulogy written in the winter of 431-430 B.C.E. Pericles begins by praising the dead, as the other Athenian funeral orations do, by regard the ancestors of present-day Athenians (, touching briefly on the acquisition of the empire. Pericles Funeral Oration (after 490 BCE) from Thucydides, The Peloponnesian War In ancient Greece, it has been a compelling tradition to conduct a funeral oration in occurrence of death just like the practice that transpired throughout the world until the contemporary era to commemorate the dead and their deeds when they were still living.. PDF. Accessed March 3, 2023. [8] It is possible that elements of both speeches are represented in Thucydides's version. Retrieved from "https: . MIME type. At this point, however, Pericles departs most dramatically from the example of other Athenian funeral orations and skips over the great martial achievements of Athens' past: "That part of our history which tells of the military achievements which gave us our several possessions, or of the ready valour with which either we or our fathers stemmed the tide of Hellenic or foreign aggression, is a theme too familiar to my hearers for me to dwell upon, and I shall therefore pass it by. Explore Course Hero's library of literature materials, including documents and Q&A pairs. Pericles's funeral oration was given to honor the soldiers lost in war by commemorating the military accomplishments of the Athens government and to distinguish the roles of men and women in Athens society. Meanwhile, Pericles goes on a trip to Tarsus to reunite with his daughter, but Cleon and Dionyza tell him that she has died, and show him the monument they have ordered built in order to erase their complicity in the matter. You'll be billed after your free trial ends. Pericles' funeral oration was a speech written by Thucydides and delivered by Pericles for his history of the Peloponnesian War. However, in his book The Humanity of Thucydides, Clifford Orwin argues that Pericles' final speech, delivered during the plague, constitutes Pericles' true funeral oration because the plague 20% You'll be billed after your free trial ends. to start your free trial of SparkNotes Plus. Your group members can use the joining link below to redeem their group membership. It has been described as "a eulogy of Athens itself." The speech is a glorification of Athens' achievements, designed to stir the spirits of a state still at war. He tells the sons and brothers of the dead that the struggle they face is to equal the achievements and honor of the dead. In Pericles' Funeral Oration, Pericles' praises the dead, describes how great Athens is, explains why Athens must continue to support the war, and tells why Athens must live up to the fallen soldiers of the Peloponnesian war. Homer (c. 9th or 8th century BCE) was a celebrated Greek poet. You can view our. At the time, Athenian democracy was an unusual system of government. (2021, July 29). ABSTRACT. If you don't see it, please check your spam folder. [17] Pericles was chosen to provide this oration, and the content extended further than the customary eulogy to essentially form a call to action for the second year of the war after . Socrates here delivers to Menexenus a speech that he claims to have learned from Aspasia, a consort of Pericles and prominent female Athenian intellectual. Again, this is in sharp contrast to Sparta, where hardship and discipline were paramount. Pericles is a play by William Shakespeare that was first performed in 1619 . "Pericles's Funeral Oration" (Ancient Greek: ) is a famous speech from Thucydides' History of the Peloponnesian War. July 18, 2019. Course Hero, "Funeral Oration Study Guide," July 18, 2019, accessed March 3, 2023, This study guide for Pericles's Funeral Oration offers summary and analysis on themes, symbols, and other literary devices found in the text. All Athenians are expected to take an interest in public affairs, and they prize discussion when making decisions. Where their system of democracy allowed them to have a voice amongst those who made important decisions that would affect them. Pericles's funeral oration was recorded by the Athenian historian Thucydides (c. 460-c. 404 BCE) in his . They argue that Socrates' praise functioned as a mode of education for its audience, which was encouraged to live up to the admirable ideals embodied in the fallen soldiers . It is because of his remarkable contributions to making Athens great that this time period is often called the Golden Age of Pericles. He warns against cowardice and suggests that a man who dies in the grip of patriotic feeling does not even feel death. [b] Another confusing factor is that Pericles is known to have delivered another funeral oration in 440BCE during the Samian War. (one code per order). SparkNotes Plus subscription is $4.99/month or $24.99/year as selected above. They chose to face death rather than run away and let their enemies triumph. In saying that Athens does not even need Homer to sing its praises, Pericles makes a bold statement about the value and fame of his city-state. vehicles for conveying his analysis, as we see in Pericles' Funeral Oration, in which ucydides had Pericles compare Athens and Sparta. Pericles was a leading figure of the Peloponnesian War. Retrieved March 3, 2023, from 29, 2021, The burial rites that had just been observed for the fallen soldiers included a public funeral procession before the final burial. You'll also receive an email with the link. He was born around 460 BCE, into an upper-class Athenian family with substantial property - including gold mines - in Thrace. for a group? Fewer people than you may think have read or even heard of the Gettysburg Address. But soon a letter from Helicanus calls Pericles back to Tyre, so he sets off. Finally they were buried at a public grave (at Kerameikos). Upload them to earn free Course Hero access! creating and saving your own notes as you read. Pericles' Funeral Oration Analysis: Athenian This piece is a funeral oratory, a speech written to honor fallen Athenian heroes at the end of the first year of the Peloponnesian War. Pericles here is putting a positive spin on the reality of the Athenian empire. 20% [5] We can be reasonably sure that Pericles delivered a speech at the end of the first year of the war, but there is no consensus as to what degree Thucydides's record resembles Pericles's actual speech. March 4, 2023, SNPLUSROCKS20 He warns the widows of the dead men that they should be careful of their reputations and not fall short of Athenian virtues. Pericles also uses his praise of the dead to build an argument about what Athenians are fighting for. In this speech . on 50-99 accounts. The style is deliberately elaborate, in accord with the stylistic preference associated with the sophists. "If we look to the laws, they afford equal justice to all in their private differencesif a man is able to serve the state, he is not hindered by the obscurity of his condition. He notes that he will praise the dead for whom the crowd has gathered, but first he wishes to discuss the principles and institutions that define Athens. (one code per order). for a group? Athens was governed primarily by an assembly of citizens that met once a month to debate the city's issues in public. The English term spartan has come to describe a lifestyle characterized by self-denial, self-discipline, and avoidance of luxury. According to Thucydides, Pericles funeral oration said that democracy makes it so people can better themselves through merit rather than class or money. Athens had played a leading role in resisting the invasions of the Persian kings Darius I (550486 BCE) and Xerxes I (c. 519465 BCE). There, far from exercising a jealous surveillance over each other, we do not feel called upon to be angry with our neighbour for doing what he likes"[15] These lines form the roots of the famous phrase "equal justice under law." Pericles was born c. 495 BC, in Athens, Greece. Here is a great resource for teaching about Ancient Greece. The empire had grown out of the Delian League that the Athenians had brought together to fight the Persians in the Persian Wars. With this disclaimer, Pericles states that he will nevertheless follow Athenian tradition and give the customary funeral oration, doing his best to satisfy the desires and opinions of his audience. Even after Athens suffers defeats, which Pericles suggests their enemies exaggerate, he points out that Athenians are still willing to face further dangers. He had rivals and enemies, and his policies and actions were sometimes criticized, although in general he enjoyed the widespread support of Athenians. Youve successfully purchased a group discount. At any rate, Pericles eventually succumbed to and died from this plague. Indeed, a worthy summation of Pericless oration is that it is a count of the points in which [Athens] is worthy of admiration. containing as it does such important sections as the funeral oration, the account of the plague at Athens and the . A panegyrist is one who writes a panegyric, a formal public speech that elaborately praises someone or something. (accessed March 4, 2023). The free trial period is the first 7 days of your subscription. [21] He praises the soldiers for not faltering in their execution during the war. This war was fought between the two most powerful city-states of ancient Greece: Athens and Sparta.